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February, 2014. Cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus in semen of homosexual men, Fertility and Sterility, Volume 101, Issue 2, pages 350-358.
Abstract: Objective: To assess the accuracy of serology to predict the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in semen of homosexual men without and with HIV coinfection. Results: Cytomegalovirus was detected by electron microscopy in 3 of 10 specimens examined. Forty-six (89%) of 52 HIV-infected men were seropositive for CMV by combined assay for IgG/IgM; two more (48 of 52, 92%) were seropositive for CMV IgG by separate assay; 25 (48%) of the HIV-infected men had PCR-detectable CMV DNA in at least one semen specimen, 22 of whom (42%) had CMV in all specimens. Nineteen (13%) of the 150 specimens tested positive for HIV, whereas 67 (45%) tested positive for CMV; seven specimens tested positive for both CMV and HIV. Cytomegalovirus, but not HIV, detection in semen correlated with decreased CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood (<700/μL) but was not accurately predicted by serology, leukocytospermia, or age.
Authors: Joshua Lupton, Jack Vernamonti, Clinton McCabe, Jacob Noble, Hui Zhong Yin, Robert C. Eyre, Ann A. K
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June, 2013. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Cell 153, 1–11, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.006.
Abstract: Reprogramming somatic cells into pluripotent em- bryonic stem cells (ESCs) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been envisioned as an approach for generating patient-matched nuclear transfer (NT)- ESCs for studies of disease mechanisms and for developing specific therapies. Past attempts to pro- duce human NT-ESCs have failed secondary to early embryonic arrest of SCNT embryos. Here, we identi- fied premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. Optimized SCNT approaches designed to circumvent these limita- tions allowed derivation of human NT-ESCs. When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT- ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. NT-ESCs displayed normal diploid karyotypes and inherited their nuclear genome exclusively from parental somatic cells. Gene expression and differ- entiation profiles in human NT-ESCs were similar to embryo-derived ESCs, suggesting efficient reprog- ramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state.
Authors: Masahito Tachibana, Paula Amato, Michelle Sparman, Nuria Marti Gutierrez, Rebecca Tippner-Hedges, Ho
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October, 2011. Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state, NATURE | VOL 478.
Abstract: The exchange of the oocyte’s genome with the genome of a somatic cell, followed by the derivation of pluripotent stem cells, could enable the generation of specific cells affected in degenerative human diseases. Such cells, carrying the patient’s genome, might be useful for cell replacement. Here we report that the development of human oocytes after genome exchange arrests at late cleavage stages in association with transcriptional abnormalities. In contrast, if the oocyte genome is not removed and the somatic cell genome is merely added, the resultant triploid cells develop to the blastocyst stage. Stem cell lines derived from these blastocysts differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers, and a pluripotent gene expression program is established on the genome derived from the somatic cell. This result demonstrates the feasibility of reprogramming human cells using oocytes and identifies removal of the oocyte genome as the primary cause of developmental failure after genome exchange.
Authors: Scott Noggle, Ho-Lim Fung, Athurva Gore, Hector Martinez, Kathleen Crumm Satriani, Robert Prosser, K
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March, 2010. The therapeutic potential of stem cells, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2010 365, 155-163, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0149.
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an explosion of interest in stem cells, not just within the scientific and medical communities but also among politicians, religious groups and ethicists. Here, we summarize the different types of stem cells that have been described: their origins in embryonic and adult tissues and their differentiation potential in vivo and in culture. We review some current clinical applications of stem cells, highlighting the problems encountered when going from proof-of-principle in the laboratory to widespread clinical practice. While some of the key genetic and epigenetic factors that determine stem cell proper ties have been identified, there is still much to be learned about how these factors interact. There is a growing realization of the impor tance of environmental factors in regulating stem cell behaviour and this is being explored by imaging stem cells in vivo and recreating artificial niches in vitro. New therapies, based on stem cell transplantation or endogenous stem cells, are emerging areas, as is drug discovery based on patient-specific pluripotent cells and cancer stem cells. What makes stem cell research so exciting is its tremendous potential to benefit human health and the opportunities for interdisciplinary research that it presents.
Authors: Watt, Fiona M. and Driskell, Ryan R.
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January, 2010. Genome-wide microarray evidence that 8-cell human blastomeres over-express cell cycle drivers and..., J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., DOI 10.1007/s10815-010-9407-6.
Abstract: Purpose To understand cell cycle controls in the 8-Cell human blastomere. Methods Data from whole human genome (43,377 elements) microarray analyses of RNAs from normal 8-Cell human embryos were compiled with published microarrays of RNAs from human fibroblasts, before and after induced pluripo- tency, and embryonic stem cells. A sub database of 3,803 genes identified by high throughput RNA knock-down studies, plus genes that oscillate in human cells, was analyzed. Results Thirty-five genes over-detected at least 7-fold specifically on the 8-Cell arrays were enriched for cell cycle drivers and for proteins that stabilize chromosome cohesion and spindle attachment and limit DNA and centrosome replication to once per cycle. Conclusions These results indicate that 8-cell human blastomere cleavage is guided by cyclic over-expression of key proteins, rather than canonical checkpoints, leading to rapidly increasing gene copy number and a susceptibility to chromosome and cytokinesis mishaps, well-noted char- acteristics of preimplantation human embryos.
Authors: Ann A. Kiessling, Ritsa Bletsa, Bryan Desmarais, Christina Mara, Kostas Kallianidis, Dimitris Loutra
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February, 2009. Evidence that human blastomere cleavage is under unique cell cycle control, J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., (2009) 26:187 – 195 DOI 10.1007/s10815-009-9306-x.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To understand the molecular pathways that control early human embryo development. METHODS: Improved methods of linear amplification of mRNAs and whole human genome microarray analyses were utilized to characterize gene expression in normal appearing 8-Cell human embryos, in comparison with published micro-arrays of human fibroblasts and pluripotent stem cells. RESULTS: Many genes involved in circadian rhythm and cell division were over-expressed in the 8-Cells. The cell cycle checkpoints, RB and WEE1, were silent on the 8-Cell arrays, whereas the recently described tumor suppressor, UHRF2, was up-regulated >10-fold, and the protooncogene, MYC, and the core element of circadian rhythm, CLOCK, were elevated up to >50-fold on the 8-Cell arrays. CONCLUSIONS: The canonical G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints are not active in totipotent human blastomeres, perhaps replaced by UHRF2, MYC, and intracellular circadian pathways, which may play important roles in early human development.
Authors: Ann A. Kiessling, Ritsa Bletsa, Bryan Desmarais, Christina Mara, Kostas Kallianidis, Dimitris Loutra
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April, 2008. Human parthenogenetic blastocysts derived from noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes, Fertility and Sterility Vol. 89, No. 4, April 2008.
Abstract: Objective: To report on the development of human parthenogenetic blastocysts and an in vitro attachment that was generated from noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes for the first time. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Department of reproductive medicine in a medical institute in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Patient(s): Five healthy fertile donors. Intervention(s): Artificial activation of noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes after thawing, parthenote culture, and their in vitro attachment. Main Outcome Measure(s): Survival rate, activation rate, cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation. Result(s): Thirty-six of 38 cryopreserved noninseminated oocytes survived after thawing (survival rate, 94.7%). Thirty-one of 36 oocytes showed one pronucleus (activation rate, 86.1%). Thirty of 31 cleaved (cleavage rate, 96.8%). Five of 30 showed cavitation (blastocyst rate, 16.7%). Conclusion(s): Noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes showed a high survival rate after thawing. They responded very satisfactorily to artificial activation, which was followed by a high rate of parthenogenetic embryos, which can develop into blastocysts. In the future, these could be a new source for development of human parthe- nogenetic stem cells. (Fertil SterilÒ 2008;89:943–7. Ó2008 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
Authors: Ester Polak de Fried, M.D.,a Pablo Ross, M.Sc.,b Gisela Zang, M.Sc.,a Andrea Divita, M.D.,a Kerriann
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August, 2007. Human parthenogenetic blastocysts derived from noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes., Fertility & Sterility - ASRM.
Abstract: Department of Reproductive Medicine, CER Medical Institute, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires University, Buenos Aires, Argentina. OBJECTIVE: To report on the development of human parthenogenetic blastocysts and an in vitro attachment that was generated from noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes for the first time. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of reproductive medicine in a medical institute in Buenos Aires, Argentina. PATIENT(S): Five healthy fertile donors. INTERVENTION(S): Artificial activation of noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes after thawing, parthenote culture, and their in vitro attachment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Survival rate, activation rate, cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation. RESULT(S): Thirty-six of 38 cryopreserved noninseminated oocytes survived after thawing (survival rate, 94.7%). Thirty-one of 36 oocytes showed one pronucleus (activation rate, 86.1%). Thirty of 31 cleaved (cleavage rate, 96.8%). Five of 30 showed cavitation (blastocyst rate, 16.7%). CONCLUSION(S): Noninseminated cryopreserved human oocytes showed a high survival rate after thawing. They responded very satisfactorily to artificial activation, which was followed by a high rate of parthenogenetic embryos, which can develop into blastocysts. In the future, these could be a new source for development of human parthenogenetic stem cells. PMID: 17706204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Polak de Fried E, Ross P, Zang G, Divita A, Cunniff K, Denaday F, Salamone D, Kiessling A, Cibelli J
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October, 2004. Human Egg Donor Program Resumes...1st in the Nation, Press Release.
Abstract: New funding announced today will allow the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation near Boston, Massachusetts, to resume its stem cell research on unfertilized human eggs, the first such program in the United States. The research has been interrupted four times because of lack of funding.
Authors: Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation, Loch Jones
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September, 2004. What is an Embryo?, Connecticut Law Review, 36: 1051-1092.
Abstract: Most scientific and medical advances are accompanied by new terms to describe the new processes. Unfortunately, that has not happened with the new tasks eggs are being asked to perform. As a consequence, the term embryo has been mistakenly applied to all forms of activated eggs, and that is causing rancorous debate. The biology of reproduction provides natural guidelines for when an egg becomes an embryo. Increased public understanding of eggs and embryos will allow the development of appropriate research guidelines.
Authors: Kiessling A
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August, 2004. Political Science: How Stem Cells Became Hurdle For GOP Campaign --- Issue Crosses Over Party Lines, The Wall Street Journal, A1.
Authors: Davis, B and Regaldo, A
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July, 2004. Overview Brochure, Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation.
Authors: Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation
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May, 2004. BSCRF Newsletter Spring 2004, Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation.
Authors: Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation
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February, 2004. Evidence of a Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Derived from a Cloned Blastocyst, Sciencexpress Report, Page 1/ 10.1126/science.1094515.
Authors: Hwang WS, Ryu YJ, Park JH, Park ES, Lee EG, Koo JM, Chun HY, Lee BC, Kang SK, Kim SJ, Ahn C, Hwang
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December, 2003. Spontaneous differentiation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro, Human Molecular Genetics, 2004, Vol. 13, No. 7: 727–739.
Authors: Amander T. Clark1,2,3, Megan S. Bodnar1,3, Mark Fox1,2,3, Ryan T. Rodriquez1,3, Michael J. Abeyta1,
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April, 2003. Regulating Human Cloning, .
Abstract: A report on the workshop held March, 2003 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Authors: American Association for the Advancement of Science
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November, 2001. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Humans: Pronuclear and Early Embryonic Development, Journal of Regenerative Medicine.
Abstract: Human therapeutic cloning requires the reprogramming of a somatic cell by nuclear transfer to generate autologous totipotent stem cells. We have parthenogenetically activated 22 human eggs and also performed nuclear transfer in 17 metaphase II eggs. Cleavage beyond the eight-cell stage was obtained in the parthenogenetic-activate d eggs, and blastocoele cavities were observed in six. Three somatic cell-derived embryos developed beyond the pronuclear stage up to the six-cell stage. The ability to create autologous embryos represents the first step towards generating immune-compatible stem cells that could be used to overcome the problem of immune rejection in regenerative medicine.
Authors: Cibelli JB, AA Kiessling, K Cunniff, C Richards, RP Lanza, MD West.
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November, 1999. Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Embryoid Bodies Comprising the Three Embryonic.., Molecular Medicine, 6(2): 88-95.
Abstract: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are lines of cells that are isolated from blastocys
Authors: Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor1, Maya Schuldiner2, Dorit Karsenti1, Amir Eden2, Ofra Yanuka2, Michal Amit1,
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October, 1997. HIV-1 in semen: an isolated virus reservoir, The Lancet, Vol 350.
Authors: Byrn R, Zhang D, Eyre R, McGowan K, Kiessling A
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January, 1981. Poly (A)-Oligo (dT) - Stimulated DNA Polymerase Activity in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos, The Journal of Experimental Zoology.
Authors: Kiessling A, Weitlauf HM
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June, 1979. Detection of Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Human Cells, Cancer Research.
Authors: Kiessling A, Goulian M
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June, 1976. A Comparison of the Enzymatic Responses of the DNA Polymerases From Four RNA Tumor Viruses, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.
Authors: Kiessling A, Goulian M
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August, 1944. In Vitro Fertilization and Cleavage of Human Ovarian Eggs, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Authors: Rock J, Menkin MF
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